Shin splints or medial tibial stress syndrome is when the periosteal sleeve of tissue surrounding the tibia becomes inflamed. Symptoms include a burning or aching pain on the front of the shins. It is a repetitive strain injury usually seen in runners or in people who take part in activities that involve repetitive loading of the lower leg such as tennis or aerobics. It can be caused by; improper shoes, tight calf muscles, over pronation or supination of the foot, increasing intensity or duration of an activity too quickly and running on hard surfaces. The calf muscles work as shock absorbers so if they are tight they will not be pliable enough to cushion the landing of the foot. The calves also need to be strong enough to stabilise the lower leg. The treatment involves ice for the inflammation, rest until the pain subsides, then rehabilitation which will include stretching and strengthening the muscles around the ankle.